Home Archive Vol 36, No.2, 2010 Original papers Histo-anatomical Data Concerning the Vegetative Organs of Scilla bifolia L. (Liliaceae)

Histo-anatomical Data Concerning the Vegetative Organs of Scilla bifolia L. (Liliaceae)

 LUIZA BĂLĂŞOIU(1), CORNELIA BEJENARU(2), L. E. BEJENARU(1), G. D. MOGOŞANU(1), H. POPESCU(1)

(1)Department of Pharmacognosy & Phytotherapy; (2)Department of Vegetal & Animal Biology; Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova

ABSTRACT The determination of structure of the vegetative organs of Scilla bifolia L. species is the first step for the pharmacognostic research concerning the products Scillae bifoliae bulbus and Scillae bifoliae folium. The bulb has primary structure. The cells of fundamental parenchyma accumulate reserve substances. The aerial stem had circular-ribbed contour and primary structure. The medullar parenchyma is missing. It is replaced by a medullar lacuna. The leaf’s limb is amphystomatic, having an equifacial structure. The tector and secretory hairs are missing.

KEY WORDS Scilla bifolia L., vegetative organs, histo-anatomical data


Introduction

Scilla bifolia L. (Liliaceae), squill, alpine squill, is a perennial species from the Central and Southern Europe, spontaneous in the Romanian’ forests, shrubs and crops [1].

Taking into account the relationship with other medicinal species (Urginea maritima (L.) Baker sin. Scilla maritima L., sea squill, common squill) it is to suppose that S. bifolia could contain cardiac glycosides (scilladienolides), mucilages, fructosanes, catechic tannin, flavonosides, sterols, lipids, organic acids, enzymes, mineral salts [2–4].

The acquiring of histo-anatomical data concer-ning the structure of the vegetative organs is the first step for the pharmacognostic research, follo-wing the identification of the products Scillae bifoliae bulbusand Scillae bifoliae folium.

Material and Methods

Scilla bifolia L. species was harvested, at the flowering period, from the Bucovăţ Forest, Dolj County. The preservation of the biological material (bulbs, aerial stems, leaves) was made using 70c ethylic alcohol. Cross-sections through the bulb, aerial stem and leaf have been made using the anatomic razor. The cross-sections were washed with distilled water, and then treated with Javel water. The staining was made using Methyl Green and Fuchsin (MG–F), which put in evidence the cell walls: blue or blue-green for the cellulose, and violet for the lignin [5–7]. The examination of the cross sections has been made using a binocular Krüss microscope with a Soligor SR–300 MD camera, at different objectives, i.e.: ×4, ×10, and ×40.

Results and Discussion

The bulb’s leaf structure

The bulb has primary structure. In cross section through a foliole of the bulb’s structure, from external to internal, we could discern the following tissue sequence (Figures 1–3):

▪ The superior epidermis consisted of one layer of small, isodiametric cells, with slightly thick periclinal walls and thin radial walls. A thick cuticle covers the bulged external walls. We find stomata here and there.

▪ The fundamental parenchyma is represented by numerous layers of oval cells, with thin, cellulose walls, uneven disposed, with inter-cellular spaces. The cells of fundamental parenchyma accumulate reserve substances. Here and there, we find libero-ligneous fascicles.

▪ The inferior epidermis consisted of one layer of small, isodiametric cells, with slightly thick periclinal walls and thin radial walls. Here and there, we find stomata. The tector hairs are missing.

Figure 1 – Scilla bifolia L., cross section through the bulb’s leaf (MG–F stain, oc. 10×, ob. 10×): 1 – superior epidermis; 2 – parenchymatic tissue; 3 – reserve substances.

Figure 2 – Scilla bifolia L., cross section through 
the bulb’s leaf (MG–F stain, oc. 10×, ob. 10×): 
1 – inferior epidermis; 2 – parenchymatic 
tissue; 3 – libero-ligneous fascicle.

Figure 3 – Scilla bifolia L., cross section through 
the bulb’s leaf (MG–F stain, oc. 10×, ob. 10×): 
1 – libero-ligneous fascicle; 2 – phloem; 3 – xylem.

The aerial stem’s structure

In cross section, the aerial stem had circular-ribbed contour and primary structure. From external to internal, we could distinguish the following tissue sequence (Figures 4–7):

▪ The epidermis had one layer of small, isodia-metric cells, stand close together. A thick cuticle covers the bulged external walls. We find stomata here and there. The tector hairs are missing.

▪ The chlorenchyma has 2–3 layers of small round cells, uniform distributed and alternating with the cells of epidermis.

▪ The cortical parenchyma is made by 15–20 layers of oval, heterodiametric cells, with uneven disposition, and intercellular spaces with different dimensions. Numerous libero-ligneous fascicles of different sizes are disposed uneven. In the big libero-ligneous fascicles, the xylem vessels with various calibers are disposed in the shape of “V” letter, with the top oriented to the stem’s center. In the opening of the “V” letter, formed by the xylem vessels, few annex cells and xylem parenchyma, the phloem tissue is found in small proportion. It contains sieve tubes, annex cells and phloem parenchyma with reserve substances.

▪ The medullar parenchyma is missing. It is replaced by a medullar lacuna.

Figure 4 – Scilla bifolia L., cross section through 
the aerial stem (MG–F stain, oc. 10×, ob. 4×): 
1 – libero-ligneous fascicles; 2 – cortical parenchyma; 3 – medullar lacuna.

Figure 5 – Scilla bifolia L., cross section through 
the aerial stem (MG–F stain, oc. 10×, ob. 10×): 
1 – epidermis; 2 – chlorenchyma; 3 – libero-ligneous fascicles; 4 – cortical parenchyma; 
5 – medullar lacuna.

Figure 6 – Scilla bifolia L., cross section through 
the aerial stem (MG–F stain, oc. 10×, ob. 40×), closeup of a conducting fascicle: 1 – libero-ligneous fascicles; 2 – phloem; 3 – xylem.

The leaf’s structure

The leaf’s limb has equifacial structure. Taking into account the stomata disposition, the leaf’s limb is amphystomatic.

In cross section, from external to internal, the leaf has the following tissue sequence:

▪ The superior epidermis consisted of one layer of small, isodiametric cells, with slightly thick periclinal walls and thin radial walls. A thick cuticle covers the bulged external walls. We find stomata here and there. The tector hairs are missing.

Figure 7 – Scilla bifolia L., cross section through the aerial stem (MG–F stain, oc. 10×, ob. 40×), closeup of a conducting fascicle: 1 – libero-ligneous fascicles; 2 – phloem; 3 – xylem.

▪ The leaf’s mesophyll is uniform, with slightly elongated cells in palisade disposition. The palisade parenchyma is consisted of small cells, rich in chloroplasts, with uniform disposition and small intercellular spaces.

Figure 8 – Scilla bifolia L., cross section through the leaf’s limb (MG–F stain, oc. 10×, ob. 40×): 1 – superior epidermis; 2 – leaf’s mesophyll; 3 – libero-ligneous fascicle; 4 – vallecula; 5 – inferior epidermis; 6 – stomata.

▪ The libero-ligneous fascicles are disposed in all the palisade parenchyma. From both sides of the libero-ligneous fascicles, vallecula (aeriferous spaces) with different sizes is found.

▪ The inferior epidermis is made by small, isodiametric cells, with slightly thick periclinal walls and thin radial walls. Here and there, we find stomata. The tector and secretory hairs are missing.

Figure 9 – Scilla bifolia L., cross section through the leaf’s limb (MG–F stain, oc. 10×, ob. 40×): 1 – superior epidermis; 2 – leaf’s mesophyll; 3 – libero-ligneous fascicle; 4 – vallecula; 5 – inferior epidermis.

Conclusions

The bulb of Scilla bifolia L. (Liliaceae) species has primary structure. The cells of fundamental parenchyma accumulate reserve substances. Here and there, we find libero-ligneous fascicles.

The aerial stem had circular-ribbed contour and primary structure. The medullar parenchyma is missing. It is replaced by a medullar lacuna.

The leaf’s limb is amphystomatic, having an equifacial structure, with vallecula (aeriferous spaces). The tector and secretory hairs are missing.

References

1.     Ciocârlan V – (2000) The illustrated flora of Romania. Pteridophyta et Spermatophyta, Ceres Publishing House, Bucharest, 908–909 (in Romanian).

2.     Bruneton J – (1993) Pharmacognosie, Phytochimie, Plantes médicinales, Lavoisier Tec & Doc, Paris, 592–593 (in French).

3.     Ciulei I, Grigorescu E, Stănescu Ursula – (1993) Medicinal plants: Phytochemistry & Phytotherapy, vol. I, Medical Publishing House, Bucharest, 621–623 (in Romanian).

4.     Istudor Viorica – (2001) Pharmacognosy, Phyto-chemistry, Phytotherapy. Oses, osides and lipids, vol. I, Medical Publishing House, Bucharest, 267–268 (in Romanian).

5.     Andrei M, Paraschivoiu Roxana Maria – (2003) Botanical micro-technique, Niculescu Publishing House, Bucharest, 223 p (in Romanian).

6.     Toma C, Rugină Rodica – (1998) Anatomy of medicinal plants: Atlas, Romanian Academy Publishing House, Bucharest, 320 p (in Romanian).

7.     Toma C, Gostin Irina – (2000) Vegetal histology, Junimea Publishing House, Iassy, 214 p (in Romanian).


 

Correspondence Adress: George Dan Mogoşanu, Assistant Professor, Pharm., PhD, Department of Pharmacognosy & Phytotherapy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Medicine and Pharmacy 
of Craiova, 2–4 Petru Rareş Street, 200349 Craiova, Romania; Phone 0251–524 442 int. 208, 
Fax 0251–523 929, e-mail: mogosanu2006@yahoo.com, mogosanu@umfcv.ro


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