Archive issue

Current Health Sciences Journal

vol. 40 no. 2, 2014

1. Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Resistance Phenotypes and Phenotypic Highlighting Methods


Pseudomonas aeruginosa genus bacteria are well known for their increased drug resistance (phenotypic ang genotypic resistance). The most important resistance mechanisms are: enzyme production, reduction of pore expression, reduction of the external membrane proteins expression, efflux systems, topoisomerase mutations. These mechanisms often accumulate and lead to multidrug ressitance strains emergence. The most frequent acquired resistance mechanisms are betalactamase-type enzyme production (ESBLs, AmpC, carbapenemases), which determine variable phenotypes of betalactamines resistance, phenotypes which are associated with aminoglycosides and quinolones resistance. The nonenzymatic drug resistance mechanisms are caused by efflux systems, pore reduction and penicillin-binding proteins (PBP) modification, which are often associated to other resistance mechanisms. Phenotypic methods used for testing these mechanisms are based on highlighting these phenotypes using Kirby Bauer antibiogram, clinical breakpoints, and “cut off” values recommended by EUCAST 2013 standard, version 3.1.

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2. Psychosocial Issues in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B and C


Psychosocial issues and the quality of life are important components at the patients diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B and C. In function of the severity of the infection with virus B or the patients who already have cirrhosis, the treatment and psychosocial education should be improved because they have bigger problems. The frequency of psychosocial disorders seems to be raised at the patients diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B. Factors as alcohol abuse and a low social support have a negatively impact above mental health of these patients. The prevalence rate of chronic hepatitis C infection at patients with severe mental illness can be nine times higher than in healthy population. Usually patients with chronic hepatitis B have a quality of life and a mental health better than patients with chronic hepatitis C. Patients with psychiatric affections (especially institutionalized people) have generally a higher risk of being infected with virus B in comparison with general population. Patients with chronic hepatitis B and C suggest a higher grade of stigmatization from society. Despite clinical challenges which treatment with interferon at patients with chronic hepatitis and comorbidities represents, recent studies indicate the fact that treatment can be administrated in safe conditions at patients with viral chronic hepatitis and psychiatric disorders.

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3. The Association of Sleep Deprivation on the Occurrence of Errors by Nurses Who Work the Night Shift


Purpose: To determine the influence of sleep deprivation on the occurrence of errors by registered nurses working in night shift in intensive care departments. Methods: The study utilized a multi-part questionnaire which included items about demographic characteristics, reported medical errors, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) 300 questionnaires were distributed to registered nurses working in intensive care departments. 138 of the 153 (51% response rate) collected questionnaires were analyzed using correlation and stepwise logistic multiple regression. Results: Registered nurses who were sleep deprived had worse sleep quality in terms of high PSQI than those who were not. None of the demographic variables was statistically significant, not providing evidence that these variables may explain odds for being sleep deprived in the population. Conclusions: Work schedule changes, offering shorter periods of time on night shift and less working hours in the week may lead to better sleep quality and less sleep deprivation.

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4. Learning Styles of Medical Students - Implications in Education


Background: The term “learning style” refers to the fact that each person has a different way of accumulating knowledge. While some prefer listening to learn better, others need to write or they only need to read the text or see a picture to later remember. According to Fleming and Mills the learning styles can be classified in Visual, Auditory and Kinesthetic. There is no evidence that teaching according to the learning style can help a person, yet this cannot be ignored. Subjects and methods: In this study, a number of 230 medical students were questioned in order to determine their learning style. Results: We determined that 73% of the students prefer one learning style, 22% prefer to learn using equally two learning style, while the rest prefer three learning styles. According to this study the distribution of the learning styles is as following: 33% visual, 26% auditory, 14% kinesthetic, 12% visual and auditory styles equally, 6% visual and kinesthetic, 4% auditory and kinesthetic and 5% all three styles. 32 % of the students that participated at this study are from UMF Craiova, 32% from UMF Carol Davila, 11% University of Medicine T Popa, Iasi, 9% UMF Cluj Iulius Hatieganu. Discussions The way medical students learn is different from the general population. This is why it is important when teaching to considerate how the students learn in order to facilitate the learning

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5. Magneti Resonance Imaging Criteria for Thrombolysis in Hyperacute Cerebral Infarction


Purpose: Selection of patients with cerebral infarction for MRI that is suitable for thrombolytic therapy as an emerging application. Although the efficiency of the therapy with i.v. tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) within 3 hours after onset of symptoms has been proven in selected patients with CT, now these criteria are determined by MRI, as the data we gather are fast and accurate in the first hours. Material and methods: MRI screening in patients with acute cerebral infarction before application of thrombolytic therapy was done in a UCC Mannheim in Germany. Unlike trials with CT, MRI studies demonstrated the benefits of therapy up to 6 hours after the onset of symptoms. We studied 21 patients hospitalized in Clinic of Neuroradiology at University Clinical Centre in Mannheim-Germany. They all undergo brain MRI evaluation for stroke. This article reviews literature that has followed application of thrombolysis in patients with cerebral infarction based on MRI. Results: We have analyzed the MRI criteria for i.v. application of tPA at this University Centre. Alongside the personal viewpoints of clinicians, survey reveals a variety of clinical aspects and MRI features that are opened for further more exploration: therapeutic effects, the use of the MRI angiography, dynamics, and other. Conclusions: MRI is a tested imaging method for rapid evaluation of patients with hyperacute cerebral infarction, replacing the use of CT imaging and clinical features. MRI criteria for thrombolytic therapy are being applied in some cerebral vascular centres. In Kosovo, the application of thrombolytic therapy has not started yet.

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6. Correlations between Areas, Volumes or Body Fat and Anthropometric Variables


Body fat is an important determinant of nutritional status and health. This paper aims to demonstrate the existence of significant correlations between areas, or volumes of fat and anthropometric variables.

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7. Theoretical Study on the Mechanics of the Conjunct Gnatoprothetic Devices in the Context of Occlusive Function Rehabilitation


The partially intercalated edentation offers the practitioner the possibility of the functional rehabilitation of the dental arcades through conjunct gnato-prosthetic devices. The functions of the dento-maxilar device, disturbed by the presence of edentation, require a treatment approach so that, without pre-planning or estimating, the result can lead most of the times to failure in terms of functionality. Clinical evaluation associated with pre- and proprosthetic treatment can also impose, in some situations the evaluation of the dental units involved in prosthetic rehabilitation. The association and implementation of the prosthetic construction in the occlusive-articular ensemble, as well as the counterbalancing of the mastication forces per dental unit and whole interarch system, linked to the distribution of the forces at the level of the pillar teeth and prosthetic construction, represent the goal of this theoretical study.

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8. Acetylsalicylic Acid in Migraine with Aura Prevention - a Retrospective Study


In a retrospective study we evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of Acetylsalicylic Acid (ASA), an antiplatelet drug, in the prophylactic treatment of migraine with aura (MA). We reviewed the charts of 203 patients suffering from MA according to the ICHD II criteria, attending to Turin University Headache Centre. 95 subjects (46.8%) were treated with ASA at low dose, 108 (53.2%) with other prophylactic therapies normally used for migraine for a period that ranged from at least 4 months to 194 months. Eighty-four patients (88.4%) treated with ASA referred positive results, while only 64 patients (59.3%) who underwent other prophylactic treatments did (p < 0.001). The attacks’ frequency of patients treated with ASA decreased significantly from 3.83±1.57 pre-treatment to 1.38±0.87 after treatment (p<0.001). Aura duration was markedly reduced from 36.21±19.80 pre-treatment to 22.0±15.5 after treatment (p<0.001). ASA was well-tolerated. ASA is a safe drug with minor possible side effects that can be routinely used when prophylactic treatment of MA is required.

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9. Atrial Fibrillation Recurrence Predictors after Conversion to Sinus Rhythm


Purpose: We aimed to identify predictors of atrial fibrillation recurrence after conversion to sinus rhythm. Material/Methods: We included 100 patients with a history of documented atrial fibrillation in the last 12 months that were assessed by transthoracic echocardiography, 12-lead electrocardiogram and signal averaged electrocardiogram of the P wave. Follow-up was 7.3 ± 2.2 months. Results: Atrial fibrillation recurrence was documented in 27 patients. It was more frequent in patients with longer duration of previous atrial fibrillation episode, with increased left atrium size and left ventricular mass, and it was correlated with the filtered P wave duration and Integral of the P wave. Conclusions: Signal averaged ECG of the P wave, left atrium size and left ventricular mass determined by echocardiography could be helpful in predicting the risk of atrial fibrillation recurrence after conversion.

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10. The Physician s Attitude towards the End of the Existence


The physician`s attitude towards death, a phenomenon which he frequently encounters in his work practice, is most of the times ambiguous, uncertain, lacking a philosophical significance coherent enough. During the period corresponding to the transition from life to death, when the human being who is about to relinquish life for good lives, suffers, understands and needs assistance, most of the physicians adopt a particular detachment conduct. The physician`s participation in assisting the patient, constant until then, natural, sharply decreases the moment the diagnosis has become, there is nothing else to be done". This phrase “there is nothing else to be done” should be only the conclusion of one phase of the assistance given by a physician, the curative, healing assistance and the beginning of another one, the phase of “assisting the dying person”, a phase that has to be an integral part of the physician`s mission which represents a more difficult medicine, much more demanding for the physician. At this point, assistance, treatments depend on the ability of the person providing assistance to endure the fear of death in which he is included himself. The necessity of meeting the needs of the dying people has led to the drafting of “a charter of the rights of the dying”. Such charter was drafted during the symposium, “Terminally ill patient and helping person” organized by Wayne State University, Detroit, USA. Taking into account the idea that the dying person “has the right to live until the end” within the best possible conditions the palliative care have been developed. According to the French Society of Palliative Care, 1996, the palliative care aim is to ensuring the patient s quality of life (and not extending it by any means) and that of his family. In these conditions the pain control, the psychological, social and spiritual development are essential.

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11. An Extremely Rare Situation - Subcutaneously Filariasis Presented at ED Craiova


A 32 year old male patient presented to the ED Craiova with migratory, burning pain, to the right cervical and left upper eyelid. Sudden, transient, bilateral knee swelling six months ago. An inflammatory trace and a renitent cord can feel at this level, with spontaneous mobility. A microfilaraemic parasite was surgically extracted from upper eyelid. Mobility of the parasite was the key element of an extremely quick and easy diagnosis for a very rare disease but the specific circumstances of the contamination remains unclear. Even uncommon, multiple determinations are possible requiring systematic and long term investigation and medical surveillance.

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12. Deficiency Of Antithrombin III (AT III) - Case Report and Review of the Literature


Antithrombin III (AT III) is a plasmatic -glicoprotein formed by a single peptidic chain. AT III inhibits thrombin (first target) and free Xa, IXa ,VIIa plasmatic factors. In plasma AT III is found under two forms: -antithrombin and -antithrombin. Deficiency of AT III represents a risk factor for thromboembolic disease. There are known both quantitative and qualitative AT III deficiencies. Incidence of AT III inherited deficiency is relative rare (1:10.000). Acquired deficiency of AT III is more frequent. The transmission of AT III deficiency is autosomal dominant with variable shield factor. Homozygous is incompatible with life (death immediately after birth). Thrombosis appears around the age of twenty years, and in 4-5 decades of life 2/3 of patients are symptomatics. Traumatisms, surgical interventions, estrogenic treatment, precipitated thrombotic complications. Obesity and dyslipidemic syndrome are risk factors. Thrombosis affects the venous system at these patients. Arterial thrombosis are less reported. The most frequent localisations are: the veins of the legs, mesenteric veins, cave veins, superficial periombilical veins. Treatment of AT III deficiency is: administration of AT III concentrates (with a plasmatic level by 80% from normal value) and heparinotherapy. The treatment with AT III concentrates is for patients which faced major surgical interventions, pregnant women with AT III deficiency. The women with AT III deficiency should avoid the utilisation of oral contraceptives.

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13. Importance of Laparoscopic Assessment of the Uterine Adnexa in a Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser Syndrome Type II Case


In the case reported, diagnosed with Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome, the presence of normal ovaries proved to be challenging to confirm due to unusual high positioned (ectopic) ovaries. MRKH syndrome is a rare pathological condition characterized by a spectrum of the Mullerian duct abnormalities resulting in congenital aplasia of the uterus and of the upper part (2/3) of the vagina, developed during embryogenesis. At the same time, the mullerian development is interdependent with the Wolffian (mesonephric) duct and this explains the associated renal abnormalities (MRKH type II). Laparoscopic assessment was of great importance in defining the exact anatomic characteristics of MRKH syndrome.

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