Curr Health Sci J, vol. 47, no. 3, 2021

Macroscopic Changes in Oral Mucosa and Hygiene Indicators in Smokers

[Original Paper]

G.V. Popa(1,2), L. Mogoanta(3), O. Badea(4)

(1)PhD Student, Doctoral School, Departament of Histology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, Romania,
(2) Dentistry Department, Medicine and Pharmacy Faculty of „Dun?rea de Jos” University of Galati, Romania,
(3) Department of Histology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, Romania,
(4)Department of Modern Languages, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, Romania


Smoking is the most important factor affecting the oral cavity by components born in the tobacco combustion process and acting directly on the oral mucous membranes, dental arch and indirectly on the teeth support. Recent studies show the tobacco action on the oral cavity, manifestations in the form of gingivitis, bacterial plaque, dental plaque, papillary bleeding at drilling, periodontitis. Purpose of the study. In this study, we have set out to assess the macroscopic modifications of oral cavity on smokers. Materials and Methods. The participants in the study were divided into two groups, the first group of smokers with a smoking period over 5 years and the control group of nonsmokers. The patients in the two groups underwent a physical examination and an objective clinical examination, the resulting data being compared with the control group. Results. For the bacterial plaque indicatorin the smoker group there was obtained a mean value of 35.68±12.45, compared to a mean value of 16.32±6.61 for the nonsmoker group, the dental plaque indicatorfor the smoker group had a mean value of 2.24±1.02, higher than the one in the nonsmoker group, namely 0.94±0.68, and for the drilling bleeding indicator we obtained a mean value of 19.54±7.89 in the nonsmoker group, which is lower than that in the smoker group, namely 42.86±14.93. Conclusions. Smoking is a cause that maintains and aggravates the periodontal disease, including the risk of periodontitis, allowing the aggravation of gingivitis, considered a reversible surface inflammation of the gum mucosa which, by accumulation of dental plaque, the dental plaque accompanied by incorrect oral hygiene, favors the progression to periodontitis.

Periodontitis, bacterial plaque, dental calculus deposit, local bleeding, smokers.

Gabriel Valeriu Popa, Dentistry Department, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, "Dunarea de Jos" University of Galati, 35, Al. I. Cuza Street, 800010, Galati, Romania, e-mail

DOI 10.12865/CHSJ.47.03.08 - Download PDF